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Reversing Aging — The Independent

The Biology of Old Age

There are many suggested causes of old age. Telomere shortening, DNA damage, and depletion of stem cells are just a few of the proposed sources.


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Stress — Economic Times

Stress is known to have many negative effects, particularly on the nervous system. Increase in mental illness, changes in the brain’s structure, brain cell loss, and brain shrinkage are just a few.

A group of Cornell researchers, led by Dr. Jihye Paik, wanted to see how stress affects the ability of stem cells in the brain to differentiate. Stem cells are the “youngest” type of cell. Once a stem cell has matured, it can “differentiate,” or develop into a specialized type of cell, such as a red blood cell or a liver cell. Stem cell differentiation is critical to the…


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Human evolution — Britannica

Why are humans “smarter” than other animals? Scientists have wondered for ages what genetic changes have made humans special. Even though Neanderthals and Denisovans (our closest genetic relatives) were very smart, modern humans are still smarter. The specific mutation that has led to our advanced neurological development has puzzled researchers for ages. However, the discovery of the gene NOVA1 shows that the “human version” of NOVA1 is crucial to the advanced neurodevelopment of modern humans.

NOVA1: The Gene That Makes Modern Humans Smart

A group of researchers, led by Cleber A. Trujillo, wanted to find out the genetic causes behind why modern humans are more neurologically advanced than…


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Three Blind Mice — Reddit :)

Epigenetics: The Core of Gene Expression

Every cell is controlled by its proteins. They are needed for the structure, regulation, function, and so much more of the cell. Proteins are coded through a process in which the DNA, the genetic code of the cell, “transcribes”, or makes a copy of that genetic code in the form of mRNA so it can be “translated”, or produced, into a protein.


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Genetic Engineering — Wikipedia

Progeria and the cell

Progeria, or Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder that causes premature aging in young children. This aging is often so significant that the average lifespan of a child with progeria is just 14 years.


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Llama — Wikipedia

Nanobodies: Small, but Strong

Antibodies (aka immunoglobulins) are fundamental to almost every vertebrate’s immune system. Antibodies are proteins generated by plasma cells that bind to the outside of pathogens or any other things that trigger the immune systems. By binding to the pathogens, the antibodies hinder their ability carry out certain functions and make them easily identifiable to T-cells, which will kill the antibody-tagged pathogen off.


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Cancer cells being attacked by the immune system — News Medical

Cancer and Mutations

At its core, each cancer cell is just a malfunctioning cell. Cancer cells grow and reproduce tirelessly, while draining resources without producing anything for the body, to an extent that is dangerous. This abnormal growth and reproduction is caused by one thing: mutations.

Mutations happen multiple times in every day, however, the only mutations cause a cell to become cancerous are in proto-oncogenes. Proto-oncogenes are genes that, when mutated, have the ability to cause unnecessary and dangerous growth or reproduction in a cell or allow it to reproduce with mutations. Take, for example, the p53 gene. p53 is crucial to…


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Transcription Factors — Lumen Learning

From Gene to Protein and the Role Transcription Factors Play

Every person’s body is filled with multiple varieties of cells, each with a different structure and function. However, every cell in someone’s body has the same DNA: the genetic material that carries the “instructions” for each cell. This is due to gene regulation. In gene regulation, your body regulates which genes are expressed by controlling how often they are produced into a protein. What genes are expressed changes with each cell type.

The DNA gene is first copied onto mRNA through a process called transcription. The mRNA is then used, through a process called translation, to create a protein. The…


Alzheimer’s. Huntington’s. Mad Cow Disease. All of these diseases are caused by the buildup of unnecessary proteins in the system. But a revolutionary new technology offers a way to fix this.

What are PROTACs?

PROTACs, or PROteolysis TArgeting Chimeras, basically target and help break down a specific protein. To understand how they work, we first need to take a look at how the body disposes proteins. In a nutshell, a protein called an E3 ubiquitin ligase tags the target protein with ubiquitin. The proteasome, a protein that breaks down other proteins, recognizes the ubiquitin tag, and then degrades the target protein.

PROTACs function…

Om Khangaonkar

Science lover. Writer. Contact me at reachomk@gmail.com

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